Personal Finance: Ask the Experts

Get advice on money matters from The Bee's Claudia Buck and a panel of local experts

August 12, 2013
What are the tax consequences of selling my rental residence?

Q: What are the income tax consequences of selling my residential rental property in 2013? I purchased the property in Gold River in 1997 for $255,000. It was my primary residence until 2006 at which time it became my rental property. Its value in 2006 was approximately $525,000. I sold it in 2013 for $420,000.

During the 7+ years as a rental, I depreciated the property on my income taxes each year. I made no major improvements or other changes during the 16 years that I owned the property. Is there a way to avoid, minimize or shelter the income taxes that will be due in 2013?

Chico, CA

A: The general rule for sales of assets is that the gain is taxable unless there is a specific Internal Revenue Code section that provides for an exclusion.

There is an exclusion for the gain from the sale of a person's principal residence, but it does not apply unless the owner has lived in the residence for at least 2 of the last 5 years prior to the date of sale. Based on the facts in your question, it does not look like this exclusion applies, so the gain will be taxable.

Since the residence was used as a rental for a number of years, and subject to depreciation deductions, you will have two types of gain, each taxed at different rates. To the extent that the gain is due to the depreciation expense taken in the past, it will be taxed at 25%. To the extent that the gain exceeds the accumulated depreciation deductions, it will be taxed as a long-term capital gain.

For sales in 2013, if you are in the 10% or 15% federal tax bracket, the tax rate on the long-term capital gain is 0%; if you are in the 25%, 28%, 33% or 35% bracket, the capital gain tax rate is 15%; if you are in the 39.6% bracket the rate applied to capital gain is 20%. You can find the 2013 federal brackets at

In addition to the regular income taxes described above, the gain from the sale of the rental may be subject to the 3.8% medicare surtax on "net investment income." Net investment income includes gain from the sale of assets held in a "passive activity," such as a residential rental. The surtax applies if your "modified adjusted gross income" exceeds certain threshold levels. For single and head-of-household taxpayers the threshold is $200,000. For married taxpayers filing joint returns the threshold is $250,000. For married taxpayers filing separate returns the threshold is $125,000. The 3.8% tax applies to the lesser of "net investment income" or the amount your "modified adjusted gross income" exceeds the applicable threshold.

There are strategies for deferring or reducing the gain from the sale of real properties. The first is the "Section 1031 exchange," named after the IRS section that allows it. If you identify and acquire "like-kind" property replacing the property you disposed of within certain time periods, you can defer the gain from the disposition of the first property.

There are a number of rules and non-extendable deadlines that apply to this type of exchange, so you should consult with your tax advisor before entering into disposition of the first property. Since your question indicates that you have sold the property, I am going to assume that it is too late to use a "Section 1031 exchange" at this point.

Another strategy that sellers of real estate can use to defer gain is the installment sale. In an installment sale, the seller finances some or all of the purchase price by taking a mortgage note as part (or all) of the selling proceeds. Gain is recognized to as the principal on the mortgage note is received, except for the portion of the gain attributable to depreciation. That part of the gain has to be recognized in the year of sale. Similar to the "like-kind exchange," this approach has to be put in place before the sale occurs.

You can also offset the gain from the sale of the dwelling with losses from the sale of other assets held for investment. If you own investment real estate, mutual funds, stocks, or bonds that have decreased in value below their original tax basis (usually their purchase cost), selling them before the end of the year will trigger capital losses. These losses are netted against capital gains in calculating the net capital gain income subject to tax.

Finally, if the rental of the property generated losses in prior years that were suspended by the passive activity loss rules, the sale of the property in a fully taxable transaction will trigger the recognition of those losses. You may have suspended losses if your income was over $150,000 ($75,000 if you were married filing a separate return) or the operating loss in any one year was over $25,000. Take a look at your 2012 income tax return and see if contains Form 8582 and related worksheets. They will show any suspended losses that may carry-over to 2013.

About Comments

Reader comments on are the opinions of the writer, not The Sacramento Bee. If you see an objectionable comment, click the "report abuse" button below it. We will delete comments containing inappropriate links, obscenities, hate speech, and personal attacks. Flagrant or repeat violators will be banned. See more about comments here.

What You Should Know About Comments on is happy to provide a forum for reader interaction, discussion, feedback and reaction to our stories. However, we reserve the right to delete inappropriate comments or ban users who can't play nice. (See our full terms of service here.)

Here are some rules of the road:

• Keep your comments civil. Don't insult one another or the subjects of our articles. If you think a comment violates our guidelines click the "report abuse" button to notify the moderators. Responding to the comment will only encourage bad behavior.

• Don't use profanities, vulgarities or hate speech. This is a general interest news site. Sometimes, there are children present. Don't say anything in a way you wouldn't want your own child to hear.

• Do not attack other users; focus your comments on issues, not individuals.

• Stay on topic. Only post comments relevant to the article at hand. If you want to discuss an issue with a specific user, click on his profile name and send him a direct message.

• Do not copy and paste outside material into the comment box.

• Don't repeat the same comment over and over. We heard you the first time.

• Do not use the commenting system for advertising. That's spam and it isn't allowed.

• Don't use all capital letters. That's akin to yelling and not appreciated by the audience.

You should also know that The Sacramento Bee does not screen comments before they are posted. You are more likely to see inappropriate comments before our staff does, so we ask that you click the "report abuse" button to submit those comments for moderator review. You also may notify us via email at Note the headline on which the comment is made and tell us the profile name of the user who made the comment. Remember, comment moderation is subjective. You may find some material objectionable that we won't and vice versa.

If you submit a comment, the user name of your account will appear along with it. Users cannot remove their own comments once they have submitted them, but you may ask our staff to retract one of your comments by sending an email to Again, make sure you note the headline on which the comment is made and tell us your profile name.

hide comments

On October 14, The Sacramento Bee will temporarily remove commenting from While we design the upgrade, we encourage you to tell us what you like and don't like about commenting on and other websites. We've heard from hundreds of you already and we're listening. Please continue to add your thoughts and questions here. We also encourage you to write Letters to the Editor on this and other topics.

Meet Our Financial Experts

Claudia Buck

Claudia Buck is The Sacramento Bee's personal finance columnist. Read all her columns here. Contact her at

Terri Carpenter

Terri Carpenter offers advice on job hunting, retraining and career counseling. Carpenter works at Sacramento Works Inc., the career and job training arm of the Sacramento Employment and Training Agency (SETA). With 15 years in the field, she has hands-on experience with everyone from first-time job seekers to career professionals seeking advice after a layoff or looking for a mid-career change. Ask her a question.

Carlena Tapella

Carlena Tapella is a partner in the law firm of Webb & Tapella Law Corp. in Sacramento. The firm specializes in estate planning and probate, such as estates, trusts, conservatorships and litigation. She is a past president of the Sacramento County Bar Association's Estate Planning & Probate Section. Ask her a question.

Kimberly Foss

Kimberly Foss, certified financial planner, is the founder of Empyrion Wealth Management in Roseville. With nearly 30 years in the financial industry, her clients include women in transition, small business owners, retirees and "pre-retirees." Ask her a question.

Jesse Weller

Gregory Burke, a CPA and tax expert with John Waddell & Co. in Sacramento since 1984, worked as an IRS tax auditor for six years. He’s a past chairman of the California Society of CPAs. Ask him a question.

Daniel Tahara

Daniel Tahara takes your questions about California taxes. Tahara, a spokesman for the state Franchise Tax Board, has 10 years of experience as a tax auditor. Ask him a question.

Personal Finance columns

October 2013

Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
    1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20 21 22 23 24 25 26
27 28 29 30 31